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Geography: Vietnam occupies the eastern and southern part of the Indochinese peninsula in Southeast Asia, with the South China Sea along its entire coast. China is to the north and Laos and Cambodia are to the west. Long and narrow on a north-south axis, Vietnam is about twice the size of Arizona. The Mekong River delta lies in the south.

Government :Communist state.

History: The Vietnamese are descendants of nomadic Mongols from China and migrants from Indonesia. According to mythology, the first ruler of Vietnam was Hung Vuong, who founded the nation in 2879 B.C. China ruled the nation then known as Nam Viet as a vassal state from 111B.C. until the 15th century, an era of nationalistic expansion, when Cambodians were pushed out of the southern area of what is now Vietnam. A century later, the Portuguese were the first Europeans to enter the area. France established its influence early in the 19th century, and within 80 years it conquered the three regions into which the country was then divided—Cochin-China in the south, Annam in the central region, and Tonkin in the north. France first unified Vietnam in 1887, when a single governor-generalship was created, followed by the first physical links between north and south—a rail and road system. Even at the beginning of World War II, however, there were internal differences among the three regions. Japan took over military bases in Vietnam in 1940, and a pro-Vichy French administration remained until 1945. Veteran Communist leader Ho Chi Minh organized an independence movement known as the Vietminh to exploit the confusion surrounding France's weakened influence in the region. At the end of the war, Ho's followers seized Hanoi and declared a short-lived republic, which ended with the arrival of French forces in 1946. Paris proposed a unified government within the French Union under the former Annamite emperor, Bao Dai. Cochin-China and Annam accepted the proposal, and Bao Dai was proclaimed emperor of all Vietnam in 1949. Ho and the Vietminh withheld support, and the revolution in China gave them the outside help needed for a war of resistance against French and Vietnamese troops armed largely by a United States worried about cold war Communist expansion.

Capital: Hanoi,National name: Công Hòa Xa Hôi Chú Nghia Viêt Nam Languages: Vietnamese (official); English (increasingly favored as a second language); some French, Chinese, Khmer; mountain area languages (Mon-Khmer and Malayo-Polynesian) Ethnicity/race: Kinh (Viet) 85.7%, Tay 1.9%, Thai 1.8%, Muong 1.5%, Khmer 1.5%, Mong 1.2%, Nung 1.1%, others 5.3% (1999 census) Religions: Buddhist 9%, Catholic 7%, Hoa Hao 2%, Cao Dai 1%, Protestant, Islam, none 81% Literacy rate: 93.4% (2011 est.) Economic summary: GDP/PPP (2013 est.): $358.9 billion; per capita $4,000. Real growth rate: 5.3%. Inflation:6.8%. Unemployment: 1.3%. Arable land: 19.64%. Agriculture: rice, coffee, rubber, tea, pepper, soybeans, cashews, sugar cane, peanuts, bananas; poultry; fish, seafood. Labor force: 52.93 million; agriculture 48%, industry 21%, services 31% (2013). Industries: food processing, garments, shoes, machine-building; mining, coal, steel; cement, chemical fertilizer, glass, tires, oil, mobile phones. Natural resources: phosphates, coal, manganese, rare earth elements, bauxite, chromate, offshore oil and gas deposits, timber, hydropower. Exports: $128.9 billion (2013 est.): clothes, shoes, electronics, seafood, crude oil, rice, coffee, wooden products, machinery. Imports: $121.4 billion (2013 est.): machinery and equipment, petroleum products, steel products, raw materials for the clothing and shoe industries, electronics, plastics, automobiles. Major trading partners: U.S., Japan, China, Germany, Singapore, UK, South Korea, Malaysia, Thailand (2012). Communications: Telephones: main lines in use: 10.191 million (2012); mobile cellular: 134.066 million (2012).Radio broadcast stations: Government controls all broadcast media exercising oversight through the Ministry of Information and Communication (MIC); government-controlled national TV provider, Vietnam Television (VTV), operates a network of 9 channels with several regional broadcasting centers; programming is relayed nationwide via a network of provincial and municipal TV stations; law limits access to satellite TV but many households are able to access foreign programming via home satellite equipment; government-controlled Voice of Vietnam, the national radio broadcaster, broadcasts on 6 channels and is repeated on AM, FM, and shortwave stations throughout Vietnam (2008). Radios: 8.2 million (1997). Television broadcast stations: at least 7 (plus 13 repeaters) (1998).Televisions: 3.57 million (1997). Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 189,553 (2012). Internet users: 23.382 million (2009). Transportation: Railways: total: 2,632 km (2008). Highways: total: 206,633 km; paved: 148,338 km; unpaved: 47,130 km (2013 est.). Waterways: 47,130 km (30,831 km weight under 50 tons) (2013). Ports and harbors: Cam Ranh, Da Nang, Haiphong, Ho Chi Minh City, Ha Long, Quy Nhon, Nha Trang, Vinh, Vung Tau. Airports: 45 (2013). International disputes: Southeast Asian states have enhanced border surveillance to check the spread of avian flu; Cambodia and Laos protest Vietnamese squatters and armed encroachments along border; Cambodia accuses Vietnam of a wide variety of illicit cross-border activities; progress on a joint development area with Cambodia is hampered by an unresolved dispute over sovereignty of offshore islands; an estimated 300,000 Vietnamese refugees reside in China; establishment of a maritime boundary with Cambodia is hampered by unresolved dispute over the sovereignty of offshore islands; the decade-long demarcation of the China-Vietnam land boundary was completed in 2009; China occupies the Paracel Islands also claimed by Vietnam and Taiwan; Brunei claims a maritime boundary extending beyond as far as a median with Vietnam, thus asserting an implicit claim to Lousia Reef; the 2002 "Declaration on the Conduct of Parties in the South China Sea" has eased tensions but falls short of a legally binding "code of conduct" desired by several of the disputants; Vietnam continues to expand construction of facilities in the Spratly Islands; in March 2005, the national oil companies of China, the Philippines, and Vietnam signed a joint accord to conduct marine seismic activities in the Spratly Islands; Economic Exclusion Zone negotiations with Indonesia are ongoing, and the two countries in Fall 2011 agreed to work together to reduce illegal fishing along their maritime boundary.

राजधानी: हनोई,

वियतनाम (आधिकारिक तौर पर वियतनाम समाजवादी गणराज्य) दक्षिणपूर्व एशिया के हिन्दचीन प्रायद्वीप के पूर्वी भाग में स्थित एक देश है। इसके उत्तर में चीन, उत्तर पश्चिम में लाओस, दक्षिण पश्चिम में कंबोडिया और पूर्व में दक्षिण चीन सागर स्थित है। २००८ में ८ करोड़ ६१ लाख की जनसंख्या के साथ वियतनाम दुनिया में १३वाँ सबसे अधिक जनसंख्या वाला देश है। बौद्ध धर्म यहां का प्रमुख धर्म है जो देश जनसंख्या का ८५% हिस्सा है। और बौद्ध जनसंख्या में ये दुनिया का तिसरा बडा देश है (चीन और जापान के बाद)। वियतनाम में आज करीब ७.५ करोड़ बौद्ध धर्म के अनुयायी है।


९३८ ई. चीन के साथ बॉच डाँग नदी की लड़ाई में विजय हासिल करने के बाद वियतनाम के लोगों को चीन से अलग होकर स्वतंत्रता हासिल कर ली। १९वीं शताब्दी के मध्य में फ्रांस द्वारा उपनिवेश बनाए जाने से पहले दक्षिणपूर्व एशिया में भीतर तक भौगोलिक और राजनीतिक विस्तार कर अनेक एक-एक कर राजवंश पनपे। २० वीं शताब्दी के मध्य में फ्रेंच नेतृत्व का विरोध करने के प्रयास का नतीजा लोगों के देश से निकाले जाने के रूप में सामने आया, आखिरकार देश राजनीतिक रूप से दो हिस्सों में विभाजित हो गया। वियतनाम युद्ध के दौरान दोनों पक्षों के बीच लड़ाई जारी रही, जो १९७५ में उत्तर वियतनामी विजय के साथ समाप्त हुई।

यह लंबे समय तक सैन्य शासन के युद्ध में तबाह हुई देश राजनीति से अलग-थलग पड़ गया था। सरकार ने केन्द्रीयकृत आर्थिक फैसलों ने युद्धोत्तर पुनर्निर्माण की गति को धीमा बना दिया। १९८६ में आर्थिक और राजनीतिक सुधारों के साथ ही अंतरराष्ट्रीय एकीकरण का मार्ग प्रशस्त हुआ। २००० तक देश से प्रायः सभी देशों के साथ राजनयिक संबंधों की स्थापना कर ली थी। पिछले एक दशक में देश का आर्थिक विकास दुनिया में सबसे अधिक दर्ज किया गया। इन प्रयासों के क्रम में वियतनाम २००७ में विश्व व्यापार संगठन में शामिल हुआ और २००८ में संयुक्त राष्ट्र सुरक्षा परिषद का अस्थाई सदस्य बना।




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